Traditional gold jewellery designs from Assam

Jewellery 10 Sep 2018

Assamese Women Wearing Traditional Gold Jewellery

Jewellery designing has been a popular art form in Assam for centuries. The Ahom dynasty, which ruled what is modern-day Assam for almost 600 years, was responsible for popularising the practice of extracting gold dust from the sands of various rivers during the time. Both, gold-washing, which is a traditional gold mining technique that involves extracting gold from sand deposits using a pan, and manufacturing of gold, flourished in medieval Assam.

At the time, wearing gold jewellery was confined only to members of the royal family. But this slowly changed as gold became popular among the locals as well.

The designs of Assamese gold jewellery were mainly inspired by flora, fauna, household items, and even musical instruments. Most of these ornaments were traditionally gold-plated, but modern jewellery pieces use gold as the base as well.

Here’s a look at some classic Assamese gold jewellery items that are extremely popular even today:

  • Loka paro

    An ornament without which no quintessential Assamese bride’s look is complete - loka paro - consists of a pendant and a pair of earrings embellished with identical pigeons (‘paro’ means pigeon). These are made of gold and rubies, and were originally worn by dignitaries of the Ahom dynasty. When you closely look at loka paro, you’ll notice it is enamelled (made by fusing a thin layer of glass with gold).

    Loka Paro - Traditional Gold Necklace & Earnings Set

    Courtesy: Craftsvilla

    Loka Paro - Traditional Gold Necklace & Earnings Set
  • Gam kharu

    Made of gold and inscribed with floral patterns, this bracelet or bangle with a clasp was traditionally worn by men. It has now become very popular among Assamese women as well. Gam kharu is commonly worn on special occasions such as weddings or Bihu.

    Gam Kharu - Traditional Gold Bangle
    Gam Kharu - Traditional Gold Bangle
    Gam Kharu - Traditional Gold Bangle
  • Muthi kharu

    A solid and sturdy gold bracelet made purely of gold, muthi kharu is also an integral ornament in an Assamese bride’s jewellery box. Owing to its sturdy make, muthi kharu gives the look and feel of a cuff bangle. Apart from weddings, you will see women of Assam wearing muthi kharus on festivals like Bihu and Durga Puja.

    Muthi Kharu - Traditional Gold Bracelet

  • Jon biri

    A crescent-shaped pendant and earring set made of gold, jon biri is usually handmade and is worn by Assamese women on weddings and special occasions.

    Jon Biri - Traditional Crescent Moon Shaped Gold Earnings & Pendant Set
    Jon Biri - Traditional Crescent Moon Shaped Gold Earnings & Pendant Set
  • Galapota

    A neckpiece made of gold, golpota or galapota has different floral designs engraved on it. Galapota is basically an Assamese choker necklace. Many of the modern Galapota designs have minakari work done on them which make for vibrant jewellery pieces.

    Galapota - Traditional Gold Choker Necklace
    Galapota - Traditional Gold Choker Necklace

    Courtesy: Assamvilla

  • Dhol biri

    Inspired by and named after a famous musical instrument, dhol biri is one of the most popular styles of neckpieces and earrings among Assamese women. Designed in the shape of a drum (dhol) and covered with gold foil, it is one of the oldest designs of traditional Assamese jewellery.

    Dhol Biri - Traditional Dhol Shaped Design Gold Necklace & Earning Set

  • Kerumoni

    Widely worn by the locals of Assam, kerumoni is an intricately crafted ornament made of gold. It is round, with one side wide, one narrow, and a hollow centre. The design was originally used for earrings but was later incorporated in pendants as well.

    Kerumoni - Traditional Assamese Gold Jewellery

  • Pepa

    Just like dhol-biri, this ornament takes inspiration from musical instruments as well. Pepa is an Assamese hornpipe folk instrument made from the horn of a buffalo. This design of a hornpipe instrument is also used to make jewellery. A typical pepa set is crafted in gold and consists of a necklace and earrings with matching designs and colours.

    Pepa - Traditional Assamese Gold Jewellery Inspired by Local Hornpipe Instrument
    Pepa - Traditional Assamese Gold Jewellery Inspired by Local Hornpipe Instrument

    A result of fine craftsmanship and immense dedication, traditional Assamese gold jewellery is rare and exquisite. Even today, the gold jewellery market of Assam boasts of some exemplary designs that are admired by jewellery lovers across the country.

Gold Glossary


It is the purity of a precious metal that is measured in 1,000 parts of an alloy. For example, gold bar with fineness of 0.995 means that it has 995 parts of gold and 5 parts of another metal.

Gold Estimator

Enter an amount to find out its value in gold

Gold Estimator

You could own


of gold today